Mathematical formulas in HTML 4

Many mathematical (physical, chemical) formulas can be written in plain HTML 4 without resorting to the Symbol font or to graphics. The symbols below can be displayed on both Mac OS 9 and MS Windows. If possible, place the characters one after another rather than on top of each other. For example, write 23 [two thirds], [closure of A], [interior of A], (SO4)2− [sulfate ion]. You may want to read also a more detailed discussion.
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A few symbols used in mathematics and physics
¬ not sign
¯ overline, macron
ˉ small overline
^ circumflex
ˆ small circumflex
~ tilde
˜ small tilde
° degree sign
¹ superscript 1
² superscript 2
³ superscript 3
× multiplication sign
÷ division sign
± plus-minus sign
minus sign
en dash
em dash
dagger
· middle dot, centered period
· middle dot, centered period (boldface)
bullet
ellipsis
per mille sign, per thousand sign
' apostrophe (italics)
prime, minute
double prime, second
 ⁄  fraction slash
leftwards arrow
upwards arrow
rightwards arrow
downwards arrow
left right arrow
up down arrow
radical, square root
infinity
intersection
integral

top half integral
bottom half integral
approximately equal to
not equal to
identical to
less than or equal to
greater than or equal to
partial differential
ƒ script f,  f with hook
difference, increment
Δ Delta
µ micro sign
μ mu
product
Π Pi
sum, summation
Σ Sigma
ohm sign
Ω Omega
More

The Greek alphabet

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
α β γ δ ε ζ η ϑ θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
α β γ δ ε ζ η ϑ θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
α β γ δ ε ζ η ϑ θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
α β γ δ ε ζ η ϑ θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω


|r|  =  (x2 + y2 + z2)
|r|  =  (x2 + y2 + z2)

|r| = sqrt(x^2 + y^2 + z^2)


lim
n→∞
an
 
lim
n→∞
an
 

{ limit n -> infinity } a_n


 ∞ 

n = 0
an 
 ∞ 

n = 0
an 

{ product from n=0 to infinity } a_n


 ∞ 

n = 0
an 
 ∞ 

n = 0
an 

{ sum from n=0 to infinity } a_n


∆u   n 

i = 1
2u/∂xi2
u   n 

i = 1
2u/xi2

Laplacian of u = { sum from i=1 to n } d^2u / dx_i^2


 b

f(x) dx
 b

a 
f(x) dx
 b


f(x) dx
 b


a 
f(x) dx

{ integral from a to b } f(x) dx


 +∞

−∞ 
exp(−x²) dx  = √π
 +∞

−∞ 
exp(−x²) dx  = √π

{ integral from -infinity to +infinity } exp(-x^2) dx = sqrt pi


√5 − 1  =  2
—————— ——————
2 √5 + 1

(sqrt 5 - 1) / 2  =  2 / (sqrt 5 + 1)


Valid HTML 4.01
Andreas Prilop
8 August 2013